Hearing is one of the senses that allows us to get to know the world around us better and deeper. Unfortunately, over the years, it naturally deteriorates, which significantly affects the quality of life. However, the causes of hearing impairment may also have other causes and concern people of different ages. Let’s find out what makes our hearing worse.
There are two types of hearing disorders, depending on the location of the damage:
- sensorineural hearing impairment, caused by damage to a neuron of the auditory pathway, cochlea or the central nervous system,
- conductive hearing impairment related to the dysfunction of the apparatus conducting sounds from the environment to the auditory receptor, which means that the problem may be related to the middle ear or the external auditory canal.
Reasons for the deterioration of hearing
Hearing loss, or deafness, is a condition that in more cases progresses gradually, increasing with age. About 2% of people under the age of 18 are affected by this problem, 5% by 44 years of age, over 30% of the population over 65 years of age, and 40-50% of people over the age of 75. Sudden deafness, which is a severe hearing impairment that develops suddenly, usually within a few hours, is a very rarely diagnosed disease.
Conductive deafness is caused by:
- otitis media
- chronic otitis media,
- ear injuries,
- disturbances in the patency of the Eustachian tube,
- ossicular dysfunction.
On the other hand, sensorineural deafness may result from:
- senile hearing impairment,
- exposure to strong sounds,
- genetic diseases, such as Waardenburg syndrome or mutations of connexin 28,
- infections, including meningitis and labyrinthitis,
- Meniere’s disease,
- sudden and sudden changes in pressure,
- radiation therapy, which resulted in damage to the cochlea,
- skull injuries with or without a fracture of the temporal bone,
- vascular diseases of the brain, such as blood clots, embolism, atherosclerosis,
- multiple sclerosis,
- taking certain ototoxic drugs.